Chigbo Aghaegbusi MGBEMENE, Ikenna AGWUBILO, Fabian Chukwuemenam OKAFOR


Pests have continued to be problematic in warehouses of most feed mills and food manufacturing industries. Pests are heterogeneous both in space and time, creating gradients and patterns depending on the prevailing environmental variables. Pest control efforts have utilized manipulations of these variables. This project is on a module for thermal control of pests using the hitherto waste steam from the industries. The module is an engineering contraption, which uses steam to raise temperature within it to insecticidal levels (above 45˚C). This causes halt in development and protein denaturing (leading to mortality) of the pests (eggs, larvae and adults). This applied heat also toasts the material inside the module thereby improving its quality. The module consists of a rotary drum with steam passing through convoluted tube (without coming in contact with the handled material), with a capacity of 2 tons/hr of commodities. It accepts steam at 130˚C and discharges it at 110˚C. The steam pressure (permissible) is 2.7 bars. Steam velocity is 8m/s. The volume of the drum is 4 m3. A two- screw- 90 degrees-lead –counter screw-rotation type baffle is installed to achieve even distribution of heat on the material within the drum. The module is efficient, effective and useful in any integrated pest management effort.

Full Text:



ANON (1953). Alternation Current Electric Motor. Brooks Motor Limited, Huddersfield and Bernsley, England.

BANKS H. J. (1976). Physical Control of Insects: Recent Developments. Journal of Australian Entomological Society, 15(1): 89 – 100.

BUSVINE, J. R. (1968). The Future of Pest Control. Part 2. Alternative to Insecticides. PANS, 14(3): 318 – 328.

DAYAKAR, S. AND RAY, S. N. (1998). Effect of Physical Barriers on Growth and Development of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) on Wheat. Insect Environment, 4: 1 – 9.

EBELING, W. (1971). Sorptive Dusts for Pest Control. Annual Review of Entomology, 18: 259 – 280.

HOLMAN, J. P. (1998). Heat transfer. Tata-McGraw-Hill Book Company, New Delhi, 553 – 597 pp.

HOWE, R. W. (1965). A Summary of Estimates of Optimal and Minimal Conditions for Population Increase of Some Stored Products Insects. Journal of Stored Product Research, 1: 177 – 184.

KUMAR, R. (1986). Insect Pest Control with Special Reference to African Agriculture. ELBS Publications. The Camelot Press, Southampton, 298 pp.

OGUNLANA M. C. (1976). Opening Address. Pages 118 – 123. In: Proceedings of 9th Annual Conference and 10th Anniversary Celebration. Entomological Society of Nigeria.

OSUJI, F. N. C. (1985). Outlines of Stored Products Entomology for the Tropics. Fourth Dimensions Publishing Co. Ltd Enugu, Nigeria.

POPOV, E. P., NAGARAJAN, S. and LU, Z. A. (1976). Mechanics of Materials S. I Version. Prentice-Hall, Englewood, New Jersey.

ROGERS, G. F. C. and MAYHEW, Y. R. (1980). Engineering Thermodynamics; Work and Heat Transfer, 3rd Edition. ELBS/Longman, Hong Kong.

SHIGLEY, E. S. and MISCHKE, C. R. (1989). Mechanical Engineering Design.5th. Edition McGraw-Hill Book Company.

SOLBERG, H. L, CROMER, O. C. and SPALDING, A. R. (1954). Elementary Heat Power, 2nd. Edition John Wiley and Sons Incorporated, New York.

STERN, V. M. (1973). Economic Thresholds. Annual Review of Entomology, 18: 259 – 280.

STERN, V. M., SMITH, R. F., VAN DEN BOSCH, R. and HAGEN, K. J. (1959). The Integration of Chemical and Biological Control of the Spotted Alfalfa Aphid. Part 1: The Integrated Control Concept. Hilgardia, 29: 81 – 101.

TALPAZ, H. and FRIBIE, R. E. (1975). An Advanced Method for Economic Threshold Determination: A Positive Approach. Southern Journal of Agriculture Economies, 12: 19 – 25.

TOYE S. A. (1976). The Role of Entomology in the Economic Development of Nigeria. Pages 3 – 10. In: Proceedings of 9th Annual Conference and 10th Anniversary Celebration. Entomological Society of Nigeria,

VAN AMERONGEN, C. (Translation 1967). The Way Things Work. Vol. 2. Simon and Schuster. New York.

WALTON, H. (1968). The How and Why of Mechanical Movements. Popular Science Publishing Company and E. P. Dutton Company Incorporated, New York.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

A Publication of Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.