FACTORS AFFECTING FEED INTAKE IN CULTURED FISH SPECIES: A REVIEW

Ochuko Joshua ERIEGHA, Paterson Adogbeji EKOKOTU

Abstract


Feed expense constitutes the bulk of the whole cost of production in any intensive aquaculture setup in Nigeria. Consequently, feed and feeding stratagems are of paramount interest for feed utilization as well as profit maximization. However, the paucity of documents on the factors affecting feed intake in cultured fish is negatively influencing the efficiency of fish production from aquaculture. Hence, the major factors influencing feed intake by cultured fish are discussed. These factors include management practices, environment conditions, feed quality, inherent genetic factor and physiological condition of the fish. The review would help to increase basic knowledge on the nutrition (with emphasis on feed intake) of aquaculture species for improved management and productivity.


Keywords


Nutrition, Aquaculture environment, Fish metabolism, Feed management, Feed quality, Feed intake

Full Text:

PDF

References


ABOWEI, J. F. N. and EKUBO, A. T. (2011). A review of conventional and unconventional feeds in fish nutrition. British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2(4): 179 – 191.

ADEROLU, A. Z., SERIKI, B. M., APATIRA, A. L. and AJAEGBO, C. U. (2010). Effects of feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and economic viability of rearing African catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell 1822) fingerlings and juveniles. African Journal of Food Science, 4(5): 286 – 290.

ADEWUMI, A. A. and OLALEYE, V. F. (2011). Catfish culture in Nigeria: Progress, prospects and problems. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(6): 1281 – 1285.

ADRON, J. W. and MACKIE, A. M. (1978). Studies on the chemical nature of feeding stimulants for rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson. Journal of Fish Biology, 12: 303 – 310.

AJANI, F., DAWODU, M. O. and BELLO-OLUSOJI, O. A. (2011). Effects of feed forms and feeding frequency on growth performance and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(2): 318 – 322.

ALI, M. Z., HOSSAIN, M. A. and MAZID, M. A. (2005). Effect of mixed feeding schedules with varying dietary protein levels on the growth of Sutchi catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus (Sauvage) with silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes) in ponds. Aquaculture Research, 36(7): 627 – 634.

ANI, A. O., OKPAKO, B. A. and UGWUOWO, C. (2013). Effect of feeding time on the performance of juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell 1822). Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research, 3(3): 143 – 148.

ASHLEY-DEJO, S. S., OLAOYE, O. J., ADELAJA, O. A. and ABDULRAHEEM, I. (2014). Effects of feeding levels on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell 1822). International Journal of Biology and Biological Sciences, 3(2): 12 – 16.

AYINLA, O. A. (2007). Analysis of feeds and fertilizers for sustainable aquaculture development in Nigeria. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, 497: 453 – 470.

AYODELE, I. A. and AJANI, E. K. (1998). Essentials of Fish Farming (Aquaculture). Odua Company Limited, Ibadan, Nigeria.

AZEVEDO, P. A., CHO, C. Y. and BUREAU, D. P. (1998). Effects of feeding level and water temperature on growth, nutrient and energy utilization and waste outputs of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquatic Living Resources, 11: 227 – 238.

BANAN, A., KALBASSI, M. R., BAHMANI, M. and SADATI, M. A. Y. (2011). Effects of colored light and tank color on growth indices and some physiological parameters of juvenile beluga (Huso huso). Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 27(2): 565 – 570.

BARCELLOS, L. J. G., KREUTZ, L. C., QUEVEDO, R. M., DA ROSA, J. G. S., KOAKOSKI, G., CENTENARO, L. and POTTKER, E. (2009). Influence of color background and shelter availability on Jundiá (Rhamdia quelen) stress response. Aquaculture, 288(1): 51 – 56.

BASCINAR, N., CAKMAK, E., CAVDAR, Y. and AKSUNGUR, N. (2007). The effect of feeding frequency on growth performance and feed conversion rate of black sea trout (Salmo trutta labrax Pallas, 1811). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 7(1): 13 – 17.

BHATNAGAR, A. and GARG, S. K. (2000). Causative factors of fish mortality in still water fish ponds under sub-tropical conditions. Aquaculture, 1(2): 91 – 96.

BHATNAGAR, A. and SINGH, G. (2010). Culture fisheries in village ponds: a multilocation study in Haryana, India. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 1(5): 961 – 968.

BHATNAGAR, A., JANA, S. N., GARG, S. K., PATRA, B. C., SINGH, G. and BARMAN, U. K. (2004). Water quality management in aquaculture. Pages 203 – 210. In: Course Manual of Summer School on Development of Sustainable Aquaculture Technology in Fresh and Saline Waters, CCS Haryana Agricultural, Hisar, India.

BOYD, C. E. and LICHTKOPPLER, F. (1979). Water quality management in fish ponds. Pages 45 – 47. In: Research and Development Series No. 22. International Centre for Aquaculture (ICAA) Experimental Station, Auburn University, Alabama.

BUREAU, D. P. and CHO, C. Y. (1999). Nutrition and Feeding of Fish. OMNR Fish Culture Course. University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

BUREAU, D. P., HUA, K. and CHO, C. Y. (2006). Effect of feeding level on growth and nutrient deposition in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) growing from 150 to 600g. Aquaculture Research, 37(11): 1090 – 1098.

CHO, C. Y. and BUREAU, D. P. (1998). Development of bioenergetic models and the Fish-PrFEQ software to estimate production, feeding ration and waste output in aquaculture. Aquatic Living Resources, 11(4): 199 – 210.

CHUA, T. E. and TENG, S. K. (1980). Economic production of estuary grouper, Epinephelus salmoides Maxwell, reared in floating net cages. Aquaculture, 20(3): 187 – 228.

CRAIG, S. and HELFRICH, L. A. (2002). Understanding fish nutrition, feeds, and feeding. Virginia Cooperative Extension, 63: 256 – 270.

DAVIES, O. A., INKO-TARIAH, M. B. and AMACHREE, D. (2006). Growth response and survival of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings and at different feeding frequencies. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5(9): 778 – 787.

DE SILVA, S. S. and ANDERSON, T. A. (1995). Fish Nutrition in Aquaculture. Aquaculture Series, Chapman and Hall, London.

DWYER, K. S., BROWN, J. A., PARRISH, C. and LALL, S. P. (2002). Feeding frequency affects food consumption, feeding pattern and growth of juvenile yellowtail flounder (Limanda ferruginea). Aquaculture, 213(1): 279 – 292.

EKOKOTU, P. A. and NWACHI, O. F. (2014). The growth performance of Clarias gariepinus fry raised in varying coloured receptacles. Journal of Research in Biology, 4(2): 1287 – 1292.

EL-SAYED, A. and EL-GHOBASHY, A. E. (2011). Effects of tank color and feed colour on growth and feed utilization of thin lip mullet (Liza ramada) larvae. Aquaculture Research, 42: 1163 – 1169.

FLETCHER, D. J. (1984). The physiological control of appetite in fish. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology, 78(4): 617 – 628.

GATLIN, D. M. (2010). Principles of Fish Nutrition. Southern Regional Aquaculture Centre (SRAC) Publication No. 5003.

GAYLORD, T. G., MACKENZIE, D. S. and GATLIN, D. M. (2001). Growth performance, body composition and plasma thyroid hormone status of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in response to short-term feed deprivation and refeeding. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 24(1): 73 – 79.

GLENCROSS, B. D., BOOTH, M. and ALLAN, G. L. (2007). A feed is only as good as its ingredients – a review of ingredient evaluation strategies for aquaculture feeds. Aquaculture Nutrition, 13(1): 17 – 34.

GODDARD, S. (1995). Feed Management in Intensive Aquaculture. Chapman and Hall, New York.

GOH, Y. and TAMURA, T. (1980). Effect of amino acids on the feeding behaviour in red sea bream. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Comparative Pharmacology, 66(2): 225 – 229.

HANDELAND, S. O. IMSLAND, A. K. and STEFANSSON, S. O. (2008). The effect of temperature and fish size on growth, feed intake, food conversion efficiency and stomach evacuation rate of Atlantic salmon post-smolts. Aquaculture, 283: 36 – 42.

HASKELL, D. C. (1959). Trout growth in hatcheries. New York Fish and Game Journal, 6(2): 204 – 237.

HATLEN, B., GRISDALE-HELLAND, B. and HELLAND, S. J. (2006). Growth variation and fin damage in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) fed at graded levels of feed restriction. Aquaculture, 261: 1212 – 1221.

HELFMAN, G. S., COLLETTE, B. B., FACEY, D. E. and BOWEN, B. W. (2009). The Diversity of Fishes: Biology, Evolution and Ecology. Blackwell Publishing, West Sussex, United Kingdom.

HELFRICH, L. and SMITH, S. (2001). Fish kills: their causes and prevention. Pages 220 – 252. In: Virginia Cooperative Extension Service Publication.

HEPHER, B. (2009). Nutrition of Pond Fishes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

HOULIHAN, D. F., BOUJARD, D. and JOBLING, M. (2001). Food Intake in Fish. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

IBIYO, L. M. O. (2016). Hints on Fish Nutrition. Easy Ope Prints and Publishers, Nigeria.

INCE, B. W., LONE, K. P. and MATTY, A. J. (1982). Effect of dietary protein level, and an anabolic steroid, ethylestrenol, on the growth, food conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). British Journal of Nutrition, 47(03): 615 – 624.

ISHIWATA, N. (1968). Ecological studies on the feeding of fishes. VI. External factors affecting satiation method. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, 34: 785 – 791.

ISYAGI, N., ATUKUNDA, G., ALIGUMA, L., SEBISUBI, M., JOHN, W., KUBIRIZA, G. and MBULAMERI, E. (2009). Assessment of National Aquaculture Policies and Programmes in Uganda. SARNISSA EC FP7 Project, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.

JAMABO, N. A., FUBARA, R. I. and DIENYE, H. E. (2015). Feeding frequency on growth and feed conversion of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 3(1): 353 – 356.

JOBLING, M. (1995). Fish Bioenergetics. Chapman and Hall, London.

KADRI, S., METCALFE, N. B., HUNTINGFORD, F. A. and THORPE, J. E. (1997). Daily feeding rhythms in Atlantic salmon II: size‐related variation in feeding patterns of post‐smolts under constant environmental conditions. Journal of Fish Biology, 50(2): 273 – 279.

KASUMYAN, A. O. (1997). Gustatory reception and feeding behaviour in fish. Journal of Ichthyology, 37(1): 72 – 86.

KASUMYAN, A. O. (2004). Taste preferences in fish and prospects for application of taste stimulants in Aquaculture. Proceedings of the Fourth International Iran and Russia Conference, 2004: 1482 – 1488.

KASUMYAN, A. O. and DOVING, K. B. (2003). Taste preferences in fishes. Fish and Fisheries, 4(4): 289 – 347.

KAUSHIK, S. J. (2013). Feed management and on-farm feeding practices of temperate fish with special reference to salmonids. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper, 583: 519 – 551.

KOSKELA, J., PIRHONEN, J. and JOBLING, M. (1997). Feed intake, growth rate and body composition of juvenile Baltic salmon exposed to different constant temperatures. Aquaculture International, 5(4): 351 – 360.

LE BAIL, P. and ROEUF, G. (1997). What hormones may regulate food intake in fish. Aquatic Living Resources, 10(6): 371 – 379.

LEE, S. M., HWANG, U. G. and CHO, S. H. (2000). Effects of feeding frequency and dietary moisture content on growth, body composition and gastric evacuation of juvenile Korean rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli). Aquaculture, 187(3): 399 – 409.

Li, M. H., ROBINSON, E. H. and HOGUE, C. D. (2006). Catfish nutrition: Feeding food fish. Extension Service of Mississippi State University.

MADRID, J. A., BOUJARD, T. and SANCHEZ-VAZQUEZ, F. J. (2001). Feeding rhythms. Pages 189 – 215. In: HOULIHAN, D., BOUJARD, T. and JOBLING, M. (Eds.). Food Intake in Fish. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

MARTINEZ‐PALACIOS, C. A., CHAVEZ‐SANCHEZ, M. C. and ROSS, L. G. (1996). The effects of water temperature on food intake, growth and body composition of Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) juveniles. Aquaculture Research, 27(6): 455 – 461.

MCCARTHY, I. D., CARTER, C. G. and HOULIHAN, D. F. (1992). The effect of feeding hierarchy on individual variability in daily feeding of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Journal of Fish Biology, 41(2): 239 – 256.

MD MIZANUR, R., YUN, H., MONIRUZZAMAN, M., FERREIRA, F., KIM, K. and BAI, S. C. (2014). Effects of feeding rate and water temperature on growth and body composition of juvenile Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli (Hilgendorf 1880). Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 27(5): 690 – 699.

MORKORE, T. and RORVIK, K. A. (2001). Seasonal variations in growth, feed utilization and product quality of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) transferred to sea water as 0+ smolts or 1+ smolts. Aquaculture, 199: 145 – 158.

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (1981). Nutrient Requirement of Cold Water Fishes. National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA.

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (1983). Nutrient Requirement of Warm Water Fishes and Shellfishes. National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA.

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (1987). Predicting Feed Intake of Food-Producing Animals. National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA.

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (1993). Nutrient Requirements of Fish. National Academy Press, Washington.

NDOME, C. B., EKWU, A. O. and ATEB, A. A. (2011). Effect of feeding frequency on feed consumption, growth and feed conversion of Clarias gariepinus X Heterobranchus longifilis hybrids. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research, 6(1): 06 – 12.

NORDGARDEN, U., OPPEDAL, F., TARANGER, G. L., HEMRE, G. I. and HANSEN, T. (2003). Seasonally changing metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) I–Growth and feed conversion ratio. Aquaculture Nutrition, 9(5): 287 – 293.

OBE, B. W. and OMODARA, G. K. (2014). Effect of feeding frequency on the growth and feed utilization of catfish hybrid (Heterobranchus bidorsalis x Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings. Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 3(3): 9 – 16.

OMITOYIN, B. O. (2007). Introduction to Fish Farming in Nigeria. Ibadan University Press, Ibadan.

OVIE, S. I. and ADENIYI, H. A. (1990). A simple guide to water quality management in pond fish culture. National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research. Technical Report Series No. 23.

PAPATRYPHON, E. and SOARES, J. H. J. (2000). The effect of dietary feeding stimulants on growth performance of striped bass, Morone saxatilis, fed a plant feed stuff-based diet. Aquaculture, 185: 329 – 338.

PEÑA, R., DUMAS, S., TRASVIÑA, A., GARCÍA, G. and PLIEGO‐CORTÉZ, H. (2005). Effects of tank colour and prey density on first feeding of the spotted sand bass Paralabrax maculatofasciatus (Steindachner) larvae. Aquaculture Research, 36(12): 1239 – 1242.

RABBANI A. G. and ZENG, C. (2005). Effects of tank colour on larval survival and development of mud crab, Scylla serrata (Forskal). Aquaculture Research, 36(11): 1112 – 1119.

RICHE, M. and GARLING, D. (2003). Feeding Tilapia in Intensive Recirculating Systems. Fact Sheet Series #114, North Central Regional Aquaculture Centre, Iowa State University, Iowa, USA. http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1005&context=ncrac_factsheets Accessed June 12, 2016.

STRAND, A., ALANÄRÄ, A., STAFFAN, F. and MAGNHAGEN, C. (2007). Effects of tank colour and light intensity on feed intake, growth rate and energy expenditure of juvenile Eurasian perch, (Perca fluviatilis L.). Aquaculture, 272(1): 312 – 318.

TAKEDA, M. and TAKII, K. (1992). Gustation and nutrition in fishes: application to aquaculture. Pages 271 – 287. In: Fish Chemoreception, Springer, Netherlands.

TALBOT, C., CORNEILLIE, S. and KORSØEN, O. (1999). Pattern of feed intake in four species of fish under commercial farming conditions: implications for feeding management. Aquaculture Research, 30(7): 509–518.

THORPE, J. E. and CHO, C. Y. (1995). Minimizing waste through bioenergetically and behaviourally based feeding strategies. Water Science and Technology, 31(10): 29 – 40

TOM, L. (1998). Nutritional and Feeding of Fish. Second Edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

TSADIK, G. and KUTTY, M. N. (1987). Influence of ambient oxygen on feeding and growth of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus ARAC/87/WP/10. United Nation Development Programme. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research Project RAF/87/009.

ÜSTÜNDAĞ, M. and FERIT, R. A. D. (2015). Effect of different tank colors on growth performance of rainbow trout juvenile (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792). Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi, 21(1): 144 – 151.

WALBERG, E. (2014). Effect of increased water temperature on warm water fish feeding behaviour and habitat use. Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato, 11(1): 13. http://cornerstone.lib.mnsu.edu/jur/vol11/iss1/13 Accessed June 12, 2016.

WANG, N., HAYWARD, R. S. and NOLTIE, D. B. (1998). Effect of feeding frequency on food consumption, growth, size variation, and feeding pattern of age-0 hybrid sunfish. Aquaculture, 165(3): 261 – 267.

WHITE, P. (2013). Environmental consequences of poor feed quality and feed management. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper, 583: 553 – 564.

WYNNE, K., STANLEY, S., MCGOWAN, B. and BLOOM, S. (2005). Appetite control. Journal of Endocrinology, 184(2): 291 – 318.

YASHARIAN, D., COYLE, S. D., TIDWELL, T. J. and STIWELL, W. E. (2005). The effect of tank colouration on survival, metamorphosis rate, growth and time to metamorphoses of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosembergii) rearing. Aquaculture Research, 36(3): 278 – 283.

YUAN, Y. C., GONG, S. Y., LUO, Z., YANG, H. J., ZHANG, G. B. and CHU, Z. J. (2010). Effects of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth and body composition of juvenile Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus. Aquaculture Nutrition, 16(2): 205 – 212.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


A Publication of Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.