EFFECT OF PHYTASE SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE GROWTH, MINERAL COMPOSITION AND PHOSPHORUS DIGESTIBILITY OF AFRICAN CATFISH (CLARIAS GARIEPINUS) JUVENILES

Olugbenga ORISASONA, Augustine Eyiwunmi FALAYE, Emmanuel Kolawole AJANI, Oladeji Kazeem KAREEM

Abstract


This study investigates the effect of phytase supplemented diets on growth, bone mineralization and phosphorus digestibility of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. A 40 % crude protein diet was produced using fishmeal, soybean meal, lima bean meal, groundnut cake and yellow maize as ingredients. Diets E0, E1, E2 and E3 were supplemented with phytase (Natuphos microbial phytase, 5000 FTU/g; BASF) at 0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 FTUkg-1 feed respectively. The diets were fed to C. gariepinus (25.28 ± 0.03g) at 3 % body weight at two equal instalments daily. After 98 days of feeding, results indicated that mean weight gain (MWG) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in fish fed E1 (63.82 g), E2 (66.71 g) and E3 (64.98 g) than E0 (55.76 g). Feed consumed was marginally highest in E2 (110.91g) and least in E0 (103.83g). Phosphorus digestibility were significantly lower (p>0.05) in E0, with phytase resulting in over 28 % improvement. Calcium, phosphorus and zinc were highest in the carcass of E3 (30.23 mg/g, 31.96 mg/g and 52.78 µg/g respectively) and least in E0 (18.81 mg/g, 24.83mg/g and 35.55 µg/g respectively). Results also indicate significant increase (p<0.05) in bone minerals of fish fed diets E1, E2 and E3. Faecal phosphorus decreased with increase in phytase supplement from 15.98 mg/g in E0 to 11.01 mg/g in E3. Value of fish produced and profit index were significantly higher (p<0.05) in fish fed diets supplemented with phytase.


Keywords


Clarias gariepinus, Growth, Digestibility, Calcium, Phosphorus, Zinc

Full Text:

PDF

References


APHA (1992). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 18th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington DC, USA.

AOAC (2005). Official Methods of Analysis. 17th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), Washington DC, USA.

BAEVERFJOORD, G., ASGARD, T. and SHEARER, K. D. (1998). Development and detection of phosphorus deficiency in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., parr and post-smolts. Aquaculture Nutrition, 4: 1 – 11.

BARUAH, K., SAHU, N. P., PAL, A. K. and DEBNATH, D. (2004). Dietary phytase: An ideal approach for a cost effective and low-polluting aqua feed. NAGA, World Fish Center Quarterly, 27(3 and 4): 15 – 19.

BARUAH, K., PAL, A. K., SAHU, N. P. and DEBNATH, D. (2007). Microbial phytase supplementation in Rohu (Labeo rohita) diets enhances growth performance and nutrient digestibility. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 38(1): 129 – 137.

CASTELL, J. D. and TIEWS, K. (1980). Report of the EIFAC, IUNs and ICES working group on standardisation of methodology in fish nutrient research. (Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, 21 – 23 March 1979). EIFAC Technical Paper, 36: 1 – 24.

CAIN, K. D. and GARLING, D. L. (1995). Pre-treatment of soybean meal with phytase for salmonid diets to reduce phosphorus concentration in hatchery effluents. The Progressive Fish Culturist, 57: 114 – 119.

CHENG, Z. J. and HARDY, R. W. (2003). Effects of extrusion and expelling processing, and microbial phytase supplementation on apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients in full-fat soybeans for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 218 (1 – 4): 501 – 514.

DEBNATH, D., PAL, A. K. and SAHU, N. P. (2005). Effect of dietary microbial phytase supplementation on growth and nutrient digestibility of Pangasius pangasius (Hamilton) fingerlings. Aquaculture Research, 36(2): 180 – 187.

DUNCAN, D. B. (1955). Multiple range and F tests. Biometrics, 11(1): 1 – 4 2.

ENGELEN, A. J., VAN DER HEEFT, F. C., RANDSDORN, P. H. and SOMERS, W. A. (2001). Determination of phytase activity in feed by a colorimetric enzymatic method: collaboratory study. Journal of AOAC International, 84(3): 629 – 633.

FORSTER, I., HIGGS, D. A., DOSANJH, B. S. and ROWSHANDELI, M. (1999). Potential for dietary phytase to improve the nutritive value of Canola protein concentrate and decrease phosphorus output in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) held in 11oC freshwater. Aquaculture, 179(1): 109 – 125.

JACKSON, L., LI, S. M. H. and ROBINSON, E. H. (1996). Use of microbial phytase in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) diets to improve utilization of phytate phosphorus. Journal of World Aquaculture Society, 27: 309 – 313.

JIMOH, W. A., FAGBENRO, O. A. and ADEPARUSI, E. O. (2010). Digestibility coefficients of processed jackbean meal Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC for Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) diets. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture, 2(4): 102 – 107.

LAINING, A., ISHIKAWA, M., KOSHIO, S. and YOKOYAMA, S. (2012). Dietary inorganic phosphorus or microbial phytase supplementation improves growth, nutrient utilization and phosphorus mineralization of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major, fed soybean‐based diets. Aquaculture Nutrition, 18(5): 502 – 511.

LALL, S. P. (2002). The minerals. Pages 260 – 301. In: HALVER, J. E. and HARDY, R. W. (Eds.). Fish Nutrition. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

LI, M. H. and ROBINSON, E. H. (1997). Microbial phytase can replace inorganic phosphorus supplements in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus diets. Journal of World Aquaculture Society, 28: 402 – 406.

LIEBERT, F. and PORTZ, L. (2005). Nutrient utilization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed plant based low phosphorus diets supplemented with graded levels of different sources of microbial phytase. Aquaculture, 248: 111 – 119.

NWANNA, L. C. (2003). Risk management in the aquaculture by controlled feeding regime. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2(6): 324 – 328.

NWANNA, L. C., FAGBENRO, O. A. and ADEYO, A. O. (2005). Effects of different treatment of dietary soybean meal and phytase on the growth and mineral deposition in African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 4(12): 980 – 987.

NWANNA, L. C. and SCHWARZ, F. J. (2007). Effect of supplemental phytase on growth, phosphorus digestibility and bone mineralization of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L). Aquaculture Research, 38: 1037 – 1044.

NWANNA, L. C., KOLASHA, M., EISENREICH, R. and SCHWARZ, F. J. (2007). Pretreatment of dietary plant feedstuffs with phytase and its effect on growth and mineral concentration in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Journal of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, 92: 677 – 682.

ORISASONA, O, FALAYE, A. E., AJANI, E. K. and KAREEM, O. K (2016). Effect of replacement of soybean with Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) meal on growth and hematological parameters of Clarias gariepinus juveniles (Burchell, 1822). Journal of Aquatic Sciences, 31(2A): 229 – 240.

PAPATRYPHON, E. and SOARES, J. H. (2001).The effect of phytase on apparent digestibility of four practical plant feedstuffs fed to striped bass, Morone saxatilis. Aquaculture Nutrition, 7: 161 – 167.

PAPATRYPHON, E, HOWELL, R. A. and SOARES, J. H. (1999). Growth and mineral absorption by striped bass Morone saxatilis fed a plant feedstuff based diet supplemented with phytase. Journal of World Aquaculture Society, 30: 161 – 173.

RICHE, M. and BROWN, P. B. (1996). Availability of phosphorus from feedstuffs fed to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture, 142: 269 – 282.

SAJJADI, M. and CARTER, C. G. (2004). Effect of phytic acid and phytase on feed intake, growth, digestibility and trypsin activity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.). Aquaculture Nutrition, 10: 135 – 142.

SARDAR, P., RANDHAWA, H. S., ABIS, M. and PRABHAKAR, S. K. (2007). Effect of dietary microbial phytase supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilisation, body composition and haemato-biochemical profiles of Cyprinus carpio (L.) fingerlings fed soy protein-based diets. Aquaculture Nutrition, 13: 444 – 456.

SCHAFER, A., KOPPE, W. M., MEYER-BURGDORFF, K. H. and GUNTHER, K. D. (1995). Effects of a microbial phytase on the utilization of native phosphorus by carp in a diet based on soybean meal. Water Science and Technology, 31(10): 149 – 155.

STOREBAKKEN, T., SHEARER, K. D. and ROEM, A. J. (1998). Availability of protein, phosphorus and other elements in fish meal, soy-protein concentrate and phytase-treated soy-protein-concentrate-based diets to Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Aquaculture, 161: 363 – 377.

STOREBAKKEN, T., REFSTIE, S. and RUYTER, B. (2000). Soy products as fat and protein sources in fish feeds for intensive aquaculture. Pages 127 – 170. In: DRACKLEY, J. K. (Ed.). Soy in Animal Nutrition. Federation of Animal Science Societies, IL, USA.

SUGIURA, S. H., DONG, F. M., RATHBONE, K. C. and HARDY, R. W. (1998). Apparent protein digestibility and mineral availabilities in various feed ingredients for Salmonid feeds. Aquaculture 159: 177 – 202.

SUGIURA, S. H., GABAUDAN, J., DONG, F. M. and HARDY, R. W. (2001). Dietary microbial phytase supplementation and the utilization of phosphorus, trace minerals and protein by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) fed soybean meal-based diets. Aquaculture Research, 32: 583 – 592.

VAN WEERD, J. H., KHALAF, K. H., AARTSEN, E. J. and TIJSSEN, P. A. (1999). Balance trials with African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed phytase-treated soybean meal-based diets. Aquaculture Nutrition, 5(2): 135 – 142.

VIELMA, J. and LALL, S. P. (1998). The control of phosphorus homeostasis of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in freshwater. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 18: 83 – 93.

VIELMA, J., LALL, S. P., KOSKELA, J., SCHONER, F. J. and MATTILA, P. (1998). Effects of dietary phytase and cholecalciferol on phosphorus bioavailability in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 163: 309 – 323.

VIELMA, J., RUOHONEN, K. and PEISKER, M. (2002). Dephytinization of two soy protein increases phosphorus and protein utilization by rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture, 204: 145 – 156.

VIELMA, J, RUOHONEN, K, GABAUDAN, J. and VOGEL, K. (2004). Top-spraying soybean meal based diets with phytase improves protein and mineral digestibility but not lysine utilization in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquaculture Research, 35(10): 955 – 964.

WILSON, R. P., ROBINSON, E. H., GATLING, D. B. and POE, W. E. (1982). Dietary phosphorus requirement of channel catfish. Journal of Nutrition, 112: 1197 – 1202.

YAN, W. and REIGH, R. C. (2002). Effects of fungal phytase on utilization of dietary protein and minerals, and dephosphorylation of phytic acid in the alimentary tract of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fed an all-plant protein diet. Journal of World Aquaculture Society, 33(1): 10 – 22.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


A Publication of Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.