Rasheed Olatunji MORUF, Khalid Olajide ADEKOYA


Global demand for seafood products alone is projected to increase by 70 percent in the next 30 years as harvests from traditional capture fisheries either remain stable or continue to decline. At the same time, coastal marine ecosystems worldwide that support wild shellfisheries are threatened by pollution, habitat degradation, overharvesting and a growing dependence on common pool-resources among other concerns, lending an increasingly important role for sustainably produced and managed shellfish resources to fill the widening gap in the world’s capacity for food production, hence the application of genetic technology. This paper then review the importance of genetics application in shellfisheries like species identification, stock structure, mixed stock analysis, biomarkers for age, harvest rate and abundance, genetic diversity, detection of pathogens and invasive species among others. Various methods of genetic approach, challenges and strategies for promoting these genetic methods in Nigeria were also presented. 


Shellfish, Genetics, Economically importance, Mollusca, Crustacean, Nigeria

Full Text:



ADEKOYA, K. O., OBOH, B. O., ADEFENWA, M. A. and OGUNKANMI, L. A. (2013). Morphological characterization of five Nigerian indigenous chicken types. Journal of Scientific Research and Development, 14: 55 – 66.

ALAM, M. S. and ISLAM, M. S. (2005). Population genetic structure of Catla catla (Hamilton) revealed by microsatellite DNA markers. Aquaculture, 246(1-4): 151 – 160.

AVISE, J. C., JONES, A. G, WALKER, D., DEWOODY, J. A. and COLLABORATORS (2002). Genetic mating systems and reproductive natural histories of fishes: lessons for ecology and evolution. Annual Review of Genetics, 36(1): 19 – 45.

BRINEZ, R., CARABALLO, O. and SALAZAR, V. (2011). Genetic diversity of six populations of red hybrid tilapia, using microsatellite genetic markers. Revista MVZ Cordoba, 16(2): 2491 – 2498.

CADRIN, S. X., FRIEDLAND, K. D. and WALDMAN, J. R. (2005). Stock Identification Methods: Applications to Fishery Science. Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam.

CRUZ, F., PEREZ, M. and PRESA, P. (2005). Distribution and abundance of microsatellites in the genome of bivalves. Gene, 346: 241 – 247.

DULVY, N. K., SADOVY, Y. and REYNOLDS, J. D. (2003). Extinction vulnerability in marine populations. Fish and Fisheries, 4 (1): 25 – 64.

ERONDU, E. S., AKINROTIMI, O. A. and GABRIEL, U. U. (2011). Genetic manipulation for enhanced aquaculture production in Nigeria. Bioscience Research Journal, 23(2): 131 – 140.

FAO (1997). Fisheries Management, Section 1.2. Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Rome, Italy.

FAO (1999). DNA-Based Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: Research Needs for Standardization and Validation of the Detection of Aquatic Animal Pathogens and Diseases. Food and Agriculture Organization Report and Proceedings of the Expert Workshop, Bangkok, Thailand.

GAFFNEY, P. M. (1996). Biochemical and population genetics. Pages 423 – 441. In: KENNEDY, V. S., NEWELL, R. I. and EBLE, A. F. (Eds.). The Eastern Oyster: Crassostrea virginica. University of Maryland Sea Grant College, Maryland, USA.

GAFFNEY, P. M. (2006). The role of genetics in shellfish restoration. Aquatic Living Resources, 19(3): 277 – 282.

HOLD, N., MURRAY, L. G., KAISER, M. J., HINZ, H., BEAUMONT, A. R. and TAYLOR, M. I. (2012). Potential effects of stock enhancement with hatchery-reared seed on genetic diversity and effective population size. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 70: 330 – 338.

ICES (2014). Report of the Working Group on the Application of Genetics in Fisheries and Mariculture (WGAGFM). International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), Olhãu, Portugal.

KAPUSCINSKI, A. R. and MILLER, L. M. (2007). Genetic Guidelines for Fisheries Management. Second Edition, Department of Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, University of Minnesota Sea Grant, Minnesota.

LAWAL-ARE, A. O. (2010). Reproductive biology of the blue crab, Callinectes amnicola in the Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria. Turkish Journal of Fish and Aquatic Science, 10: 1 – 7.

LAWAL-ARE, A. O., KUSEMIJU, K. and NWANKWO, D. I. (2012). Mating behaviour and larval development of the Blue Crab, Callinectes amnicola (De Rocheburne) from a tropical estuarine lagoon. Journal of Marine Science Research and Development, 3: 1 – 4.

LYNCH, M. and WALSH, B. (1998). Genetics and Analysis of Quantitative Traits. Sinauer Associates, Massachusetts, USA.

MARTINEZ, V. (2007). Marker-assisted selection in fish and shellfish breeding schemes. Pages 329 – 362. In: GUIMARÃES, E. P. (Ed.). Marker-Assisted Selection-Current Status and Future Perspectives in Crops, Livestock, Forestry and Fish. Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, Italy.

MORUF, R. O. and LAWAL-ARE, A. O. (2015). Growth pattern, whorl and girth relationship of the periwinkle, Tympanotonus fuscatus var radula (Linnaeus, 1758) from a tropical estuarine Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 3(1): 111 – 115.

MORUF, R. O. and LAWAL-ARE, A. O. (2017a). Size composition, Growth pattern and Condition factor of two Portunid crabs, Callinectes amnicola (De Rochebrune) and Portunus validus (Herklots) from Lagos Coast, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture, 5(1): 15 – 21.

MORUF, R. O. and LAWAL-ARE, A. O. (2017b). Comparability in dietary elements, sex ratio and fecundity of Portunidae crabs, Callinectes amnicola (De Rochebrune) and Portunus validus (Herklots) off Lagos Coast. Journal of Aquatic Sciences, 32(1A): 25 – 31.

MORUF, R. O. and OJETAYO, T. A. (2017). Biology of the West African fiddler crab, Uca tangeri (Eydoux, 1835) (Decapoda: Ocypodidae) from a mangrove wetland in Lagos, Nigeria. International Journal of Aquatic Biology, 5(4): 263 – 267.

NAI-HSIEN C. and LIAO, I.C (2001). Cryopreservation of finfish and shellfish gametes and embryos. Aquaculture 197: 161–189.

NGOILE, M. and SARUNDAY, W. (2002). Capacity for conservation of African aquaculture biodiversity. Expert consultation in biosafety and environment impact of genetic enhancement and introduction of improved tilapia strains/alien species in Africa, Nairobi Kenya.

OIE (2003). Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. Fourth edition, Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission, Office International des Epizooties (OIE), Paris, France.

OVENDEN, J. R., BERRY, O., WELCH, D. J., BUCKWORTH, R. C. and DICHMONT, C. M. (2015). Ocean’s eleven: a critical evaluation of the role of population, evolutionary and molecular genetics in the management of wild fisheries. Fish and Fisheries, 16(1): 125 – 159.

PESPENI, M. H., GARFIELD, D. A., MANIER, M. K. and PALUMBI, S. R. (2012). Genome-wide polymorphisms show unexpected targets of natural selection. Proceedings of the Royal Society B - Biological Sciences, 279(1732): 1412 – 1420.

PURCELL, M. K., NICHOLS, K. M., WINTON, J. R., KURATH, G., THORGAARD, G. H., WHEELER, P., HANSEN, J. D., HERWIG, R. P. and PARK, L. K. (2006). Comprehensive gene expression profiling following DNA vaccination of rainbow trout against infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Molecular Immunology, 43(13): 2089 – 2106.

REYNOLDS, J. D., DULVY, N. K., GOODWIN, N. B. and HUTCHINGS, J. A. (2005). Biology of extinction risk in marine fishes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 272(1579): 2337 – 2344.

RIBAUT, J. M. and HOISINGTON, D. (1998). Marker-assisted selection: new tools and strategies. Trends in Plant Science, 3(6): 236 – 239.

RIGINOS, C. and CUNNINGHAM, C. (2005). Local adaptation and species segregation in two mussel (Mytilus edulis x Mytilus trossulus) hybrid zones. Molecular Ecology, 14(2): 381 – 400.

ROMANA-EGUIA, M. R. R., IKEDAB, M., BASIAOA, Z. U. and TANIGUCHIB, N. (2004). Genetic diversity in farmed Asian Nile and red hybrid tilapia stocks evaluated from microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analysis. Aquaculture, 236(1-4): 131 – 150.

SANFORD, E. and KELLY, M. W. (2011). Local adaptation in marine invertebrates. Annual Review of Marine Science, 3(1): 509 – 535.

SANFORD, E. and WORTH, D. J. (2010). Local adaptation along a continuous coastline: Prey recruitment drives differentiation in a predatory snail. Ecology, 91(3): 891 – 901.

SHUMWAY, S. E. and KRAEUTER, J. N. (2000). Molluscan shellfish research and management: charting a course for the future. Final Proceedings from the Workshop, Department of Commerce. Charleston, South Carolina, USA.

STINCHCOMBE, J. R. and HOEKSTRA, H. E. (2007). Combining population genomics and quantitative genetics: finding the genes underlying ecologically important traits. Heredity, 100(2): 158 – 170.

SUTTLE, C. A. (2005). Viruses in the sea. Nature, 437(7057): 356 – 361.

WAPLES, R. S. and GAGGIOTTI, O. (2006). What is a population? An empirical evaluation of some genetic methods for identifying the number of gene pools and their degree of connectivity. Molecular Ecology, 15: 1419 – 1439.

WARD, R. D., WOODWARD, M. and SKIBINSKI, D. O. (1994). A comparison of genetic diversity levels in marine, freshwater, and anadromous fishes. Journal of Fish Biology, 44(2): 213 – 232.

WENNE, R., BOUDRY, P., HEMMER-HANSEN, J., LUBIENIECKI, K.P., WAS, A. and KAUSE, A. (2007). What role for genomics in fisheries management and aquaculture?. Aquatic Living Resource, 20(3): 241 – 255.

YANICK, J. F., HEATH, J. W. and and HEATH, D. D. (2003). Survival and growth of local and transplanted blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus, Lamark). Aquaculture Research, 34(10): 869 – 875.

YEO, D. C., NG, P. K., CUMBERLIDGE, N., MAGALHAES, C., DANIELS, S. R. and CAMPOS, M. R. (2008). Global diversity of crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia, 595(1): 275 – 286.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

A Publication of Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.